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Was Lobengula responsible for the colonisation of Zimbabwe?

-to a larger extent he was not responsible
-the Rudd concession was written in English but Lobengula could not read and write
-most of what was written in the Rudd concession he was not told
-Lobengula made an attempt to cancel the Rudd concession ,it shows he knew he was cheated

-Rhodes was determined to colonise Zimbabwe in his Cape to Cairo dream and there was nothing Lobengula could do

-Lobengula did not know that by putting an “X”he was signing away his political powers
-Lobengula did not that his trusted indunas Lotshe and Sikombo who persuaded him to sign were bribed
-A British agent ,C.D Helm pretended to be friendly to Lobengula yet he was a British agent of
colonialism working with Rhodes

-European diplomacy was ahead of that of Lobengula
-Lobengula sent his indunas Babenjani and Mshete to the Queen to disown the Rudd concession
-However ,Lobengula did not take time to understand the people he was dealing with
-Lobengula was greedy for luxuries and materials eg 100 pounds ,guns
-Lobengula stopped amabutho from using force against whites and this weakened his negotiating powers
-Lobengula wanted guns to fight his many enemies eg Kololo ,Ngwato, Boers, Portuguese who threatened him