Powers which were interested in Southern Africa
- Southern Rhodesia(Zimbabwe)
- Northern Rhodesia(Zambia)
- South Africa
- Southern Africa(Namibia).
- BOERS OF THE TRANSVAAL
Kingdoms which were colonised by Europeans
Names of concession seekers
- JS Moffat.
- Charles rudd
- Rotchffort Maguire.
- Piet Grobler.
- Edward Lippet.
- Charles Rudd.
- Francis Thompson.
- Thomas Baines.
- Edward Lippert.
Wars of resistance fought by Africans
- The Anglo-Ndebele war(1893-1894)
- Chimurenga 1
- Anglo-Zulu war(1879).
- Nama rising.
- Herero rising.
- Anglo-pedi war.
- The war of guns-Lesotho.
- Sotho resistance.
Causes of the scramble for southern Africa
- Economic reasons/factors.
- The industrial revolution contributed to the scramble for Africa.
- The demand for raw materials eg minerals(gold etc)
- Need for markets to sell manufactured goods.
- Need to invest surplus capital in Africa eg mining,Agric.
- It led to better transport eg ships were used to carry soldiers from Europe.
- The telegram was used for communication.
- New weapons were produced eg the machine and maxim guns.
- New medicines were produced which made it easy for whites to live in Africa.
- MAchinery caused unemployment in Europe, Europeans wanted to sent unemployed people to Africa.
- Other reasons
- Fertile land,Soil for agric etc.
- Pastures for livestock keeping.
- Availability of game.
- Favorable climate.
- Need for cheap labor.
- Economic reasons/factors.
- Social factors.
- Need for military bases.
- The need for prestige and pride.
- There was need to protect strategic routes eg Egypt and the suez canal.
- Africans were not united eg fought on the side of colonies.
Treaties signed by Lobengula and Europeans
- Tati concession 1870.
- Baines concession 1871.
- Grobler treaty 1887-July.
- Moffat treaty 1888 Feb.
- Rudd concession 1888 October
- Lippet concession 1891.
The Grobler Treaty 1887
Piet Grobler , as a representative of the Boers of the Transvaal.
- A treaty of friendship.
- Lobengula promised to assist the Boers with soldiers whenever he was asked for help.
- Lobengula to allow whites with passports from the Transvaal to enter Matebeleland.
- Lobengula agreed to give protection to Boer hunters and traders in Matebeleland.
- A representative of the Boers to stay at Bulawayo.
- Lobengula agreed to sent back criminals who fled from Transvaal.
- The Boers agreed to recognize Lobengula as the king of Ndebele.
- There was everlasting peace between the Boers and the Ndebele.
The Moffat treaty
- It was signed between Lobengula and John Smith Moffart.
- Moffat was an agent of Rhodes.
- Lobengula agreed to be a friend of queen of Britain.
- It canceled the Grobler treaty.
- Not to sign any other treaty without permission of Britain.
- Not to give any part of his kingdom to any other power without permission from Britain.
The Rudd Concession
- Rhodes sent 3 men to negotiate another treaty to increase his influence.
- It is the most important treaty signed by Lobengula.
- It was the immediate cause of colonization.
- The three men were Charles Rudd,Rotchfort Maguire and Francis Thompson.
- Charles Rudd was a business partner and a close university friend of Rhodes.
- Rotchfort Maguire was a lawyer.
- Francis Thompson- a fluent speaker of Nguni languages- to translate.
- There was no chance to speak to Lobengula for 5 weeks.
- Lobengula was having sleepless nights caused by concession seekers.
- Trusted Indunas were bribed- Lotshe and Sikombo and they persuaded King to talk to Rhodes’ men.
- C.D Helm was now on Rhodes’ side because missionaries had failed to convert Ndebele.He advised Lobengula to sign the Rudd Concession.
Promises made by Rhodes
- 100 pounds per month-(salary).
- A gunboat to patrol the Zambezi river/to receive 500 pounds.
- 1000 riffles/guns.
- 100 000 rounds of ammunition.
Promises made by Lobengula
- He gave all mineral wealth and metals to Rhodes.
- Complete rights to do whatever Rhodes seemed necessary to get minerals.
- Lobengula promises not to sign any other treaty without British consent.
- Not more than 10 white-men at a time.
- Visitors to leave weapons at Bulawayo.
- To dig one whole at a time.
- Not to dig near towns.
- Whites to follow Ndebele law.
- No miners and machines before receiving the first salary.